Thursday, 11 June 2015

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Human Anatomy - Skeletal System

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Human Anatomy - Skeletal System


Groups of Bones in Human Body

Group
Number of Bones
Total
Skull

22
Vertebral Column
[Cervical Vertebrae - 7
Thoracic/dorsal Vertebrae - 12
Lumbar Vertebrae - 5
Sacral Vertebrae - 1
Coccygeal Vertebrae - 1
]

26
Ribs

24
Finger bones or Phalanges
14 (in each hand)
28
Toe bones or Phalanges
14 (in each foot)
28
Wrist bones or Carpals
8 (in each wrist)
16
Ankle bones or Tarsals
7 (in each ankle)
14
Metacarpals
5
10
Metatarsals
5
10
Ears
3
6
Total number of bones in groups
184

Single Bones in Human Body

Name
Location
Sternum
Chest
Hyoid
Neck
Total number of single bones - 2


Pairs of Bones in Human Body

Name
Location
Scapula
Shoulder
Clavicle
Collar
Patella
Knee
Femur
Thigh
Tibia
Leg
Fibula
Leg
Humerus
Upper arm
Ulna
Lower arm
Radius
Lower arm
Pelvic bone
Hips
Total number of pairs of bones - 20


Types of Bones in Human Body

Type
Example
Long Bone
Ulna, Radius, Humerus, Femur, Tibia, Fibula
Short Bone
Wrist and ankle bones
Flat Bone
Skull bones
Sesamoid Bone
Patella
Irregular Bone
Pelvic bones, Bones of the spine

Types of Joints in Human Body

Type
Example
Ball and Socket Joint
Shoulder and Hips
Hinge Joint
Knee and Elbow
Pivot Joint
Neck
Ellipsoidal Joint
Base of the Index finger
Saddle Joint
Base of the Thumb
Gliding Joint
Wrists and Ankles

Important Facts to Remember on Bones

✔The study of bones is called Osteology.
✔A new born has about 300 bones in its body, many of which fuse later in life to form 206 bones in an adult.
✔Bones are chiefly made up of Calcium Phosphate and Collagen (a protein).
✔The longest bone in the human body is the Femur or the thigh bone.
✔The smallest bone is located in the ear and known as the stapes.
✔Bones are attached to bones by tough, fibrous tissues known as ligaments
✔The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, ear, rib cage, verbral column, sternum and the hyoid bone totalling 80.
✔The appendicular skeleton consists of all other bones totalling 126.
✔The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and the scapula totalling 4 bones.
✔The pelvic girdle consists of 2 pelvic bones.
Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of fracture.
Rickets is a disease of the bones in children who develop soft bones due to deficiency of Vitamin D.
Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.
Gout is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.
✔Calcium is an important nutrient for building bones and slowing the pace of bone loss. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium.

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