Tuesday, 21 July 2015

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Delhi Sultanate :- Important Rulers and Points to Remember

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Delhi Sultanate


Important Rulers and Points to Remember


Ruler
Points to remember
Qutubuddin Aibak
  • He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori.
  • He was the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk Sultanate) of India.
  • He ruled for only four years, from 1206 to 1210 AD. He died while playing polo in Lahore.
  • He built the Quwwat Al Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer.
  • He started the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi, which is dedicated to a famous Sufi Saint of the time, Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
  • He is also remembered as lakhbaksh or giver of lakhs, because of his generosity.
Iltutmish
  • He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital - the two basic coins of the Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains.
  • He introduced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
  • He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
  • He completed the Qutub Minar started by Qutubuddin Aibak.
  • Sultan Ghari which is considered the first Islamic Mausoleum in Delhi, was constructed by him in memory of his eldest son, Prince Nasiru'd-Din Mahmud.
  • Genghis Khan, the Mongolian invader appeared for the first time on the banks of river Indus, during his reign.
  • He was the longest serving Slave ruler who ruled for 25 years.
Razia Sultan
  • Razia was the first lady to sit on the throne of Delhi.
  • She succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236.
Balban
  • His original name was Baharuddin.
  • He is considered the greatest Sultan of slave dynasty.
  • He was a slave bought by Sultan Iltutmish.
  • He introduced the Persian culture of Zaminbos that is lying flat on one's face before the emperor.
  • He adopted a policy of blood and iron against rebels, traitors and robbers.
  • He got the title of Ulagh Khan for defeating the Mongols.
  • He suppressed the rebellious tribe Meo, the people of Mewat who used to plunder the people of Delhi even in the day light.
  • Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the Chahalgani, a group of the forty most important nobles in the court.
Ala-ud-din Khilji
  • He was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India and is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.
  • He became the Sultan after murdering his uncle Jalaluddin Khilji.
  • He established an effective espionage system to curb any revolt from his followers.
  • He was the first Sultan to maintain a standing army.
  • He was the first Sultan to conquer the Deccan.
  • He created the third city of Delhi known as Siri.
  • He is known for his economic reforms and price control system.
  • Alauddin Khilji seized the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond from the ruler of Malwa.
Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq
  • His original name was Ghazi Malik.
  • He founded the city of Tughluqabad.
  • He died when a pavilion built for him collapsed.
Muhammad bin Tughluq
  • His original name was Jauna Khan.
  • He was a scholar versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical sciences. He had knowledge of medicine and was skillful in dialectics. He was also a calligrapher. He was well versed with several languages like Persian, Arabic, Turkish and even Sanskrit.
  • He introduced token currency using brass or copper coins backed by silver or gold in treasury. However, the measure lead to heavy losses to the treasury.
  • He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, which he renamed as Daulatabad, but as the plan failed he shifted back to Delhi.
  • Ibn Batuta, the famous Moroccan traveler, visited him during his reign.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq
  • He was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur.
  • He is best known for the construction of a network of canals.
  • He founded several cities, including Jaunpur, Firozpur, Firoz Shah Kotla and Hissar-Firoza.
  • He rebuilt the top two floors of the Qutub Minar which were damaged by lightning in 1368 AD.
  • One of his hunting lodges, Shikargah, also known as Kushak Mahal, is situated within the Teen Murti Bhavan complex, Delhi.
  • Tughlaq Road in Delhi is named after him.
Sikandar Lodhi
  • He founded the modern city of Agra.
Ibrahim Lodhi
  • The last of Delhi Sultans, he was defeated and killed in the 1st Battle of Panipat against Babur in 1526.
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