Tuesday, 2 February 2016

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Jainism In India,,,

@KnowledgePhilic

FAST TRACK READING :
Indian History 
JAINISM IN INDIA
About Jainism
o Claims lineage of 24 Tirthankaras
o Mahavira was the last Trithankara (6th century BCE)
o Parshavantha is claimed to be the 23rd Trithankara (9th century BCE)
o Jainism predates Buddhism
IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF JAINISM
1. Parshvanatha

o He was the 23rd Tirthankara
o Lives in Varanasi around 800 BCE
o Son of king Ashvasena and queen Vama of Varanasi
o Attained nirvana atop mountain Sammet Shikar, now known as Parasnath Hills

2. Vardhamana Mahavira

o He was the 24th and last Tirthankara
o Born 599 BCE in Kshatriyakunda in Bihar
o Father was king Siddharta and mother Queen Tishala
o At age 30 gave up wordly possessions and wandered as an ascetic for 12 years
o Attained nirvana 527 BCE at Pawapuri near Rajgir at age 72

3. Acharya Bhadrabahu

o Influential Jain monk who lived 433 BCE – 357 BCE
o He was the spiritual teacher of Changradgupta Maurya
o Led Chandragupta Maurya and other followers to Karnataka to avoid famine in the north
o The Digambara sect of Jainism follows his teachings
o Composed important Jaina texts like Upsargahara Stotra and Kalpasutra

THE COUNCILS OF JAINISM

1. First Council

o Held at Pataliputra
o supervised by Stulabhadra (disciple of Bhadrabahu)
o Established the Jain canon Siddhanta, from which the teachings of Svetambaras derived

2. Second Council
o Held at Vallabhi (Gujarat)
o Supervised by Devardhi Kshama-sramana
o Objective was to collect all Jain sacred texts and compile them in books

THE SECTS OF JAINISM

1. Digambara

o Implies sky-clad
o Digambara monks do not wear clothes
o Digambara ascetics have only two possessions: a peacock feather broom and a water gourd
o Believe women cannot attain moksha

2. Svetambara

o Implies white-clad
o Svetambara monks wear white clothes
o Do not believe that women cannot attain moksha

IMPORTANT JAIN SITES IN INDIA

1. Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves

o Located near Bhubaneshwar
o Commissioned as quarters for Jain monks by Kharavela in the 2nd century BCE
o Caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri that face each other
o Udayagiri caves house the famous Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela

2. Parasnath Hills

o One of the most sacred places of Jainism
o Located near Giridih in Jharkhand
o 20 out of 24 Tirthankaras attained nirvana here, including Parshvanatha

3. Shravanabelagola

o Houses the 57 foot statue of Gomateshwara Bahubali
o Built around 980 CE by Chamundaraya a general of Ganga king Gangaraya
o The Mahamastakabhisheka is performed every 12 years for the statue
o The last ceremony was held in 2006, next one will be held in 2018
o It is one of the largest monolith statues in the world (carved out of a single rock)

IMPORTANT JAIN TEMPLES IN INDIA

1.Dilwara – Rajasthan- Built by Chalukyas 11-13th centuries
Famous for use of marble

2. Ranakpur –Rajasthan- Built in the 14-15th centuries

3. Bawangaja- Madhya Pradesh- 84 foot statue of first Tirthankara Rishabha (Adinatha)
Erected 12th century CE

4. Sonagiri- Madhya Pradesh.

By":: Shubham mishra

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